Lithofacies and Palaeoenvironments of the Carboniferous- Permian Nilawahan Group, Salt Range Pakistan

  • Azeem Shah
  • Mohammad Haneef
  • Irfan U. Jan


The Carboniferous-Permian Nilawahan Group of the Salt Range Pakistan is comprised of the terrestrialdominated Tobra, Dandot, Warchha and Sardhai formations. The sedimentological investigation of this succession has helped in identifying 13 lithofacies; including three in the stratigraphically lowermost Tobra Formation, three in the overlying Dandot Formation and seven in the Artinskian Warchha Sandstone. These lithofacies have been further grouped into three facies associations: 1. The Glacial and glacio-fluvial facies associations of the Tobra Formation. 2. The tidally influenced shallow marine facies associations of the Dandot Formation and the fluvial channel bar and flood plain facies associations o%the Warchha Sandstone. The uppermost Sardhai Formation represents near-shore marine environment of deposition. The Sardhai Formation displays recessive- profile and is sporadically found in the Salt Range. Due to the incompetent lithology, the unit is rarely exposed and hard to differentiate into lithofacies/facies associations at the present locations. The Sardhai Formation is overlain by the Zaluch Group carbonates. The Carboniferous-Permian succession of Pakistan thus represents the warming as a result of the demise of the Carboniferous-Permian glaciation and the northward drift of the southern Tethyan shore during Early and Middle Permian.